TREM-1 expression is increased in the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis patients and induces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Kuai, J., Gregory, B., Hill, A., Pittman, D.D., Feldman, J.L., Brown, T., Carito, B., O'Toole, M., Ramsey, R., Adolfsson, O., Shields, K.M., Dower, K., Hall, J.P., Kurdi, Y., Beech, J.T., Nanchahal, J., Feldmann, M., Foxwell, B.M., Brennan, F.M., Winkler, D.G., Lin, L.L.
Journal   Rheumatology (Oxford).
Species  
Analytes Measured   GM-CSF , IL-8
Matrix Tested   Synovium cell culture supernatants
Year   2009
Volume   48
Page Numbers   1352-8
Application   Cytokines and Chemokines
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the expression and function of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) in the synovium of human RA patients as well as the level of soluble TREM-1 in the plasma of RA patients.

METHODS: Twenty-four RA synovial samples were analysed by gene expression oligonucleotide microarrays. Expression levels of TREM-1 mRNA in murine CIA paws were determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR). TREM-1 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in five RA synovial samples and two OA synovial samples. TREM-1-positive cells from five RA synovial tissues were analysed by FACS staining to determine the cell type. Activation of TREM-1 was tested in five RA synovial samples. Soluble TREM-1 was measured in serum from 32 RA patients.

RESULTS: The expression of TREM-1 mRNA was found to increase 6.5-fold in RA synovial samples, whereas it was increased 132-fold in CIA paws. Increased numbers of TREM-1-positive cells were seen in RA synovium sections and these cells co-expressed CD14. Using a TREM-1-activating cross-linking antibody in RA synovial cultures, multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines were induced. The average amount of soluble TREM-1 in plasma from RA patients was found to be higher than that in plasma from healthy volunteers.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the presence of high levels of functionally active TREM-1 in RA synovium may contribute to the development or maintenance of RA, or both. Inhibiting TREM-1 activity may, therefore, have a therapeutic effect on RA. High levels of soluble TREM-1 in the plasma of RA patients compared with healthy volunteers may indicate disease activity.

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GM-CSF, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Non-human primate
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus NHP Cytokine 24-Plex Kit
Eotaxin-3, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Non-human primate
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus NHP GM-CSF Kit
GM-CSF | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus NHP IL-8 Kit
IL-8 | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Proinflammatory Panel 1 NHP Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 | Non-human primate
Multiplex
V-PLEX Proinflammatory Panel 1 NHP Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 | Non-human primate
Multiplex
Human GM-CSF Antibody
GM-CSF
Human IL-8 Antibody Bulk Product
IL-8
V-PLEX Chemokine Panel 1 Human Kit
Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Cytokine Panel 1 Human Kit
GM-CSF, IL-1α, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Human Cytokine 30-Plex Kit
Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC, TNF-α, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Human GM-CSF Kit
GM-CSF | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Human IL-8 Kit
IL-8 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Human Proinflammatory Panel II (4-Plex)
IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Chemokine Panel 1 Human Kit
Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Cytokine Panel 1 Human Kit
GM-CSF, IL-1α, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Human Cytokine 30-Plex Kit
Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC, TNF-α, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Human GM-CSF Kit
GM-CSF | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Human IL-8 Kit
IL-8 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Human Proinflam. Panel II (4-Plex)
IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Proinflammatory Panel 1 Human Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Proinflammatory Panel 1 Human Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
Chemokine Panel 1 Human Control Pack
Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, TARC | Human
Cytokine Panel 1 Human Control Pack
GM-CSF, IL-1α, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Human
Proinflammatory Panel 1 Human Control Pack
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α | Human
Human ProInflammatory-4 II Tissue Culture Kit
IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
Human ProInflammatory 7-Plex Tissue Culture Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
Human ProInflammatory 9-Plex Tissue Culture Kit
GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
Human IL-8 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-8 | Human
Singleplex
Human TH1/TH2 10-Plex Tissue Culture Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
Canine ProInflammatory Panel 3 Ultra-Sensitive Kit
IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α | Canine
Multiplex
Human GM-CSF Tissue Culture Kit
GM-CSF | Human
Singleplex
MA6000 Human IL-8 384 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-8 | Human
Singleplex
MS6000 Human ProInflammatory-4 II 384 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-6, IL-8 | Human
Multiplex
Mouse GM-CSF Tissue Culture Kit
GM-CSF | Mouse
Singleplex
Mouse GM-CSF Ultra-Sensitive Kit
GM-CSF | Mouse
Singleplex
U-PLEX Biomarker Group 1 NHP Assays
CTACK, ENA-78, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-2, Eotaxin-3, FLT3L, Fractalkine, G-CSF, GM-CSF, GRO-α, I-309, IFN-α2a, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-2Rα, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17A/F, IL-17B, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17F, IL-18, IL-22, IL-23, IP-10, I-TAC, MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, MCP-4, M-CSF, MDC, MIF, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-3α, MIP-3β, MIP-5, SDF-1α, TARC, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, TNF-α, TNF-β, TPO, TRAIL, VEGF-A, YKL-40 | Non-human primate
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