Tetradecylthioacetic acid attenuates inflammation and has antioxidative potential during experimental colitis in rats.

Bjorndal B, Grimstad T, Cacabelos D, Nylund K, Aasprong OG, Omdal R, Portero-Otin M, Pamplona R, Lied GA, Hausken T, Berge RK.
Journal   Dig Dis Sci.
Species  
Analytes Measured   IL-5
Matrix Tested   Colon tissue homogenates
Year   2012
Volume  
Page Numbers  
Application   Cytokines and Chemokines
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The fatty acid analogue tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a moderate pan-activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), and has in previous studies showed potential as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, both through PPAR and non-PPAR mediated mechanisms.

AIMS: This study aimed to determine whether TTA could alleviate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats.

METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed a control diet (control- and DSS-group) or a diet supplemented with 0.4 % TTA (TTA + DSS-group) for 30 days, and DSS was added to the drinking water the last 7 days. Ultrasound measurements were performed at day 29. At day 30, rats were sacrificed and the distal colon was removed for histological evaluation and measurement of cytokine levels, oxidative damage, and gene expression.

RESULTS: The disease activity index was not improved in the TTA + DSS-group compared to the DSS-group. However, ultrasound measurements showed a significantly reduced colonic wall thickening in the TTA + DSS-group. TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were reduced at the protein and mRNA level in the TTA + DSS-group. Moreover, TTA-treated rats demonstrated reduced colonic oxidative damage, while inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 mRNA expression was elevated in both the DSS- and TTA + DSS-groups. PPARγ signaling may be involved in the anti-inflammatory response to TTA, as Pparg mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in colon.

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the pan-PPAR agonist TTA reduced colonic oxidative damage and cytokine levels in a rat model of colitis, and its potential to ameliorate colitis should be further explored.

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Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Human Cytokine 30-Plex Kit
Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC, TNF-α, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Human IL-5 Kit
IL-5 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Mouse IL-5 Kit
IL-5 | Mouse
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Proinflammatory Panel1 Mouse Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, KC/GRO, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
V-PLEX Proinflammatory Panel 1 Mouse Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, KC/GRO, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
Cytokine Panel 1 Human Control Pack
GM-CSF, IL-1α, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Human
Proinflammatory Panel 1 Mouse Control Pack
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, KC/GRO, TNF-α | Mouse
Proinflammatory Panel 1 Rat Control Pack
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, KC/GRO, TNF-α | Rat
Human TH1/TH2 10-Plex Tissue Culture Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
Human TH1/TH2 7-Plex Tissue Culture Kit
IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13 | Human
Multiplex
Mouse IL-5 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-5 | Mouse
Singleplex
Mouse TH1/TH2 9-Plex Tissue Culture Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12 (total), KC/GRO, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
Human IL-5 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-5 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Mouse Cytokine 29-Plex Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17A/F, IL-17C, IL-17E/IL-25, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-27p28/IL-30, IL-31, IL-33, IP-10, KC/GRO, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-2, MIP-3α, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Rat IL-5 Kit
IL-5 | Rat
Singleplex
V-PLEX Rat IL-5 Kit
IL-5 | Rat
Singleplex
U-PLEX Biomarker Group 1 NHP Assays
CTACK, ENA-78, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-2, Eotaxin-3, FLT3L, Fractalkine, G-CSF, GM-CSF, GRO-α, I-309, IFN-α2a, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-2Rα, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17A/F, IL-17B, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17F, IL-18, IL-22, IL-23, IP-10, I-TAC, MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, MCP-4, M-CSF, MDC, MIF, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-3α, MIP-3β, MIP-5, SDF-1α, TARC, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, TNF-α, TNF-β, TPO, TRAIL, VEGF-A, YKL-40 | Non-human primate
V-PLEX Plus Mouse Cytokine 29-Plex Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17A/F, IL-17C, IL-17E/IL-25, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-27p28/IL-30, IL-31, IL-33, IP-10, KC/GRO, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-2, MIP-3α, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
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