The roles of IRF-3 and IRF-7 in innate antiviral immunity against dengue virus.

Chen HW, King K, Tu J, Sanchez M, Luster AD, Shresta S.
Journal   J Immunol
Species  
Analytes Measured   IL-10 , IL-12 p70 , IL-6 , IL-8
Matrix Tested   Serum
Year   2013
Volume   191
Page Numbers   4194-4201
Application   Cytokines and Chemokines
Abstract
We investigated the roles of IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-3 and IRF-7 in innate antiviral immunity against dengue virus (DENV). Double-deficient Irf-3-/-7-/- mice infected with the DENV2 strain S221 possessed 1,000-150,000 fold higher levels of viral RNA than wild-type and single-deficient mice 24 h postinfection (hpi); however, they remained resistant to lethal infection. IFN-α/β was induced similarly in wild-type and Irf-3-/- mice post-DENV infection, whereas in the Irf-7-/- and Irf-3-/-7-/- mice, significantly low levels of IFN-α/β expression was observed within 24 hpi. IFN-stimulated gene induction was also delayed in Irf-3-/-7-/- mice relative to wild-type and single-deficient mice. In particular, Cxcl10 and Ifnα2 were rapidly induced independently of both IRF-3 and IRF-7 in the Irf-3-/-7-/- mice with DENV infection. Higher levels of serum IFN-γ, IL-6, CXCL10, IL-8, IL-12 p70, and TNF were also observed in Irf-3-/-7-/- mice 24 hpi, at which time point viral titers peaked and started to be cleared. Ab-mediated blockade experiments revealed that IFN-γ, CXCL10, and CXCR3 function to restrict DENV replication in Irf-3-/-7-/- mice. Additionally, the IFN-stimulated genes Cxcl10, Ifit1, Ifit3, and Mx2 can be induced via an IRF-3- and IRF-7-independent pathway that does not involve IFN-γ signaling for protection against DENV. Collectively, these results demonstrate that IRF-3 and IRF-7 are redundant, albeit IRF-7 plays a more important role than IRF-3 in inducing the initial IFN-α/β response; only the combined actions of IRF-3 and IRF-7 are necessary for efficient control of early DENV infection; and the late, IRF-3- and IRF-7-independent pathway contributes to anti-DENV immunity.

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CRP, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, FGF (basic), GM-CSF, ICAM-1, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PlGF, SAA, TARC, Tie-2, TNF-α, TNF-β, VCAM-1, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-1/Flt-1 | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Neuroinflammation Panel 1 Human Kit
CRP, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, FGF (basic), ICAM-1, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PlGF, SAA, TARC, Tie-2, TNF-α, TNF-β, VCAM-1, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-1/Flt-1 | Human
Multiplex
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