Inhibition of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) suppresses accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetic mice.

Zetterqvist AV, Berglund LM, Blanco F, Garcia-Vaz E, Wigren M, Dunér P, Andersson AM, To F, Spegel P, Nilsson J, Bengtsson E, Gomez MF.
Journal   PLoS One
Species  
Analytes Measured   IL-10 , IL-12 p70 , IL-12 Total , IL-2 , IL-4 , IL-5 , IL-6
Matrix Tested   Cell culture supernatants, plasma
Year   2013
Volume   8
Page Numbers   65020
Application   Cytokines and Chemokines
Abstract
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: Diabetic patients have a much more widespread and aggressive form of atherosclerosis and therefore, higher risk for myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease and stroke, but the molecular mechanisms leading to accelerated damage are still unclear. Recently, we showed that hyperglycemia activates the transcription factor NFAT in the arterial wall, inducing the expression of the pro-atherosclerotic protein osteopontin. Here we investigate whether NFAT activation may be a link between diabetes and atherogenesis.

METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice resulted in 2.2 fold increased aortic atherosclerosis and enhanced pro-inflammatory burden, as evidenced by elevated blood monocytes, endothelial activation- and inflammatory markers in aorta, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in plasma. In vivo treatment with the NFAT blocker A-285222 for 4 weeks completely inhibited the diabetes-induced aggravation of atherosclerosis, having no effect in non-diabetic mice. STZ-treated mice exhibited hyperglycemia and higher plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, but these were unaffected by A-285222. NFAT-dependent transcriptional activity was examined in aorta, spleen, thymus, brain, heart, liver and kidney, but only augmented in the aorta of diabetic mice. A-285222 completely blocked this diabetes-driven NFAT activation, but had no impact on the other organs or on splenocyte proliferation or cytokine secretion, ruling out systemic immunosuppression as the mechanism behind reduced atherosclerosis. Instead, NFAT inhibition effectively reduced IL-6, osteopontin, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, CD68 and tissue factor expression in the arterial wall and lowered plasma IL-6 in diabetic mice.

CONCLUSIONS: Targeting NFAT signaling may be a novel and attractive approach for the treatment of diabetic macrovascular complications.

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Multiplex
V-PLEX Human Biomarker 40-Plex Kit
CRP, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, FGF (basic), GM-CSF, ICAM-1, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PlGF, SAA, TARC, Tie-2, TNF-α, TNF-β, VCAM-1, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-1/Flt-1 | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Human Biomarker 40-Plex Kit
CRP, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, FGF (basic), GM-CSF, ICAM-1, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PlGF, SAA, TARC, Tie-2, TNF-α, TNF-β, VCAM-1, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-1/Flt-1 | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Neuroinflammation Panel 1 Human Kit
CRP, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, FGF (basic), ICAM-1, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PlGF, SAA, TARC, Tie-2, TNF-α, TNF-β, VCAM-1, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-1/Flt-1 | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Neuroinflammation Panel 1 Human Kit
CRP, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, FGF (basic), ICAM-1, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PlGF, SAA, TARC, Tie-2, TNF-α, TNF-β, VCAM-1, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-1/Flt-1 | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Cytokine Panel 1 NHP Kit
GM-CSF, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Non-human primate
Multiplex
V-PLEX NHP Cytokine 24-Plex Kit
Eotaxin-3, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Non-human primate
Multiplex
V-PLEX NHP IL-2 Kit
IL-2 | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX NHP IL-5 Kit
IL-5 | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX NHP IL-6 Kit
IL-6 | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX NHP IL-10 Kit
IL-10 | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Cytokine Panel 1 NHP Kit
GM-CSF, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Non-human primate
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus NHP Cytokine 24-Plex Kit
Eotaxin-3, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Non-human primate
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus NHP IL-2 Kit
IL-2 | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus NHP IL-5 Kit
IL-5 | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus NHP IL-6 Kit
IL-6 | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus NHP IL-10 Kit
IL-10 | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Proinflammatory Panel 1 NHP Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 | Non-human primate
Multiplex
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