Posiphen as a candidate drug to lower CSF amyloid precursor protein, amyloid-β peptide and τ levels: target engagement, tolerability and pharmacokinetics in humans.

Maccecchini ML, Chang MY, Pan C, John V, Zetterberg H, Greig NH.
Journal   J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry.
Species  
Analytes Measured   MCP-1 , APP
Matrix Tested   Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Year   2012
Volume  
Page Numbers  
Application   Alzheimers
Abstract
Aim: A first in human study to evaluate tolerability and pharmacokinetics followed by an early proof of mechanism (POM) study to determine whether the small orally, available molecule, Posiphen tartrate (Posiphen), lowers secreted (s) amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) α and -β, amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), tau (τ) and inflammatory markers in CSF of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

Study design: Posiphen single and multiple ascending dose phase 1 randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled safety, tolerance, pharmacokinetic studies were undertaken in a total of 120 healthy volunteers to define a dose that was then used in a small non-randomised study of five MCI subjects, used as their own controls, to define target engagement.

Main outcome measures: Pharmacodynamic: sAPPα, sAPPβ, Aβ(42), τ (total (t) and phosphorylated (p)) and inflammatory marker levels were time-dependently measured over 12 h and compared prior to and following 10 days of oral Posiphen treatment in four MCI subjects who completed the study. Pharmacokinetic: plasma and CSF drug and primary metabolite concentrations with estimated brain levels extrapolated from steady-state drug administration in rats.

Results: Posiphen proved well tolerated and significantly lowered CSF levels of sAPPα, sAPPβ, t-τ, p-τ and specific inflammatory markers, and demonstrated a trend to lower CSF Aβ(42).

Conclusions: These results confirm preclinical POM studies, demonstrate that pharmacologically relevant drug/metabolite levels reach brain and support the continued clinical optimisation and evaluation of Posiphen for MCI and Alzheimer's disease.

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Multiplex
U-PLEX Immuno-Oncology Group 1 (human) 384-well Assays
BAFF-R/TNFRSF13C, BCMA/TNFRSF17, CD20, CD27, CD28, CD40L (soluble), CD276/B7-H3, CTACK, CTLA-4, ENA-78, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-2, Eotaxin-3, EPO, FGF (basic), FLT3L, Fractalkine, G-CSF, GITR/TNFRSF18, GITRL/TNFSF18, GM-CSF, gp130 (soluble), Granzyme A, Granzyme B, GRO-α, HAVCR2/TIM-3, I-309, IFN-α2a, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-2Rα, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17A/F, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17E/IL-25, IL-17F, IL-18, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-27, IL-29/IFN-λ1, IL-31, IL-33, IP-10, I-TAC, LAG3, MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-4, M-CSF, MDC, MIF, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-5, OX40/TNFRSF4, PD1 (epitope 1), PD1 (epitope 2), PD-L1 (epitope 1), PD-L2, PlGF, RANKL/TNFSF11, Tie-2, TIGIT, TLR1, TNF-α, TNF-β, TPO, TRAIL, TSLP, VEGF-A, VEGF-D, YKL-40 | Human
Multiplex
U-PLEX Immuno-Oncology Group 1 (human) Assays
APRIL/TNFSF13, BAFF-R/TNFRSF13C, BCMA/TNFRSF17, CD20, CD27, CD28, CD40L (soluble), CD276/B7-H3, CTACK, CTLA-4, ENA-78, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-2, Eotaxin-3, EPO, E-Selectin, FGF (basic), FLT3L, Fractalkine, Galectin-9, G-CSF, GITR/TNFRSF18, GITRL/TNFSF18, GM-CSF, gp130 (soluble), Granzyme A, Granzyme B, GRO-α, HAVCR2/TIM-3, HVEM/TNFRSF14, I-309, ICOS-L/B7-H2, IFN-α2a, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-2Rα, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17A/F, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17E/IL-25, IL-17F, IL-18, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-27, IL-29/IFN-λ1, IL-31, IL-33, IP-10, I-TAC, LAG3, LIGHT/TNFSF14, MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-4, M-CSF, MDC, MIF, MIG, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-5, MMP-1, MMP-7, MMP-9 (total), Nectin-4, OX40/TNFRSF4, PD1 (epitope 1), PD1 (epitope 2), PD-L1 (epitope 1), PD-L1 (epitope 2), PD-L2, Pentraxin 3, Perforin, PlGF, proMMP-9, P-Selectin, RAGE (soluble), RANKL/TNFSF11, RANTES, S100A12, Tie-2, TIGIT, TLR1, TNF-α, TNF-β, TNF-RI, TNF-RII, TPO, TRAIL, TSLP, VEGF-A, VEGF-D, VEGFR-1/Flt-1, YKL-40 | Human
Multiplex
U-PLEX Proinflam Combo 1 (mouse)
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
U-PLEX Custom Biomarker Group 1 (mouse) Assays
6CKine/CCL21, BAFF, BCA-1/BLC, CD40/TNFRSF5, Eotaxin, EPO, GM-CSF, IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17A/F, IL-17C, IL-17E/IL-25, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-27p28/IL-30, IL-31, IL-33, IP-10, KC/GRO, MCP-1, MCP-5/CCL12, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-2, MIP-3α, MMP-9 (total), NGAL/LCN2, RANTES, SDF-1α, TARC, TNF-α, TNF-RI, VEGF-A | Mouse
Multiplex
Human MCP-1 Antibody
MCP-1
Mouse MCP-1 Antibody
MCP-1 | Mouse
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