Inflammatory responses to trivalent influenza virus vaccine among pregnant women.

Christian, L.M., Iams, J.D., Porter, K., Glaser, R.
Journal   Vaccine.
Species  
Analytes Measured   IL-6
Matrix Tested   Serum
Year   2011
Volume   29
Page Numbers   8982-8987
Application   Cytokines and Chemokines
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In the U.S., seasonal trivalent influenza virus vaccine (TIV) is currently universally recommended for all pregnant women. However, data on the maternal inflammatory response to vaccination is lacking and would better delineate the safety and clinical utility of immunization. In addition, for research purposes, vaccination has been used as a mild immune trigger to examine in vivo inflammatory responses in nonpregnant adults. The utility of such a model in pregnancy is unknown. Given the clinical and empirical justifications, the current study examined the magnitude, time course, and variance in inflammatory responses following seasonal influenza virus vaccination among pregnant women.

METHODS: Women were assessed prior to and at one day (n=15), two days (n=10), or approximately one week (n=21) following TIV. Serum interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were determined by high sensitivity immunoassay.

RESULTS: Significant increases in CRP were seen at one and two days post-vaccination (ps<05). A similar effect was seen for TNF-α, for which an increase at two days post-vaccination approached statistical significance (p=.06). There was considerable variability in magnitude of response; coefficients of variation for change at two days post-vaccination ranged from 122% to 728%, with the greatest variability in IL-6 responses at this timepoint.

CONCLUSIONS: Trivalent influenza virus vaccination elicits a measurable inflammatory response among pregnant women. There is sufficient variability in response for testing associations with clinical outcomes. As adverse perinatal health outcomes including preeclampsia and preterm birth have an inflammatory component, a tendency toward greater inflammatory responding to immune triggers may predict risk of adverse outcomes, providing insight into biological mechanisms underlying risk. The inflammatory response elicited by vaccination is substantially milder and more transient than seen in infectious illness, arguing for the clinical value of vaccination. However, further research is needed to confirm that the mild inflammatory response elicited by vaccination is benign in pregnancy.

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Singleplex
V-PLEX Human Proinflammatory Panel I (4-Plex)
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Human Proinflammatory Panel II (4-Plex)
IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Mouse IL-6 Kit
IL-6 | Mouse
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Human Cytokine 30-Plex Kit
Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC, TNF-α, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Human IL-6 Kit
IL-6 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Human Proinflam. Panel I (4-Plex)
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Human Proinflam. Panel II (4-Plex)
IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Mouse IL-6 Kit
IL-6 | Mouse
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Proinflammatory Panel 1 Human Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Proinflammatory Panel1 Mouse Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, KC/GRO, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Rat IL-6 Kit
IL-6 | Rat
Singleplex
V-PLEX Proinflammatory Panel 1 Human Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Proinflammatory Panel 1 Mouse Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, KC/GRO, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
V-PLEX Rat IL-6 Kit
IL-6 | Rat
Singleplex
Proinflammatory Panel 1 Human Control Pack
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α | Human
Proinflammatory Panel 1 Mouse Control Pack
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, KC/GRO, TNF-α | Mouse
Proinflammatory Panel 1 Rat Control Pack
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, KC/GRO, TNF-α | Rat
Human ProInflammatory-4 II Tissue Culture Kit
IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
Human IL-6 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-6 | Human
Singleplex
Human ProInflammatory 7-Plex Tissue Culture Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
Human ProInflammatory 9-Plex Tissue Culture Kit
GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
Human ProInflammatory-4 I Tissue Culture Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
Canine ProInflammatory Panel 3 Ultra-Sensitive Kit
IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α | Canine
Multiplex
MA6000 Rat IL-6 384 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-6 | Rat
Singleplex
Mouse ProInflammatory 7-Plex Tissue Culture Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, KC/GRO, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
MA6000 Mouse IL-6 384 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-6 | Mouse
Singleplex
MS6000 Human ProInflammatory-4 II 384 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-6, IL-8 | Human
Multiplex
Mouse IL-6 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-6 | Mouse
Singleplex
V-PLEX Mouse Cytokine 29-Plex Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17A/F, IL-17C, IL-17E/IL-25, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-27p28/IL-30, IL-31, IL-33, IP-10, KC/GRO, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-2, MIP-3α, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
U-PLEX Biomarker Group 1 NHP Assays
CTACK, ENA-78, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-2, Eotaxin-3, FLT3L, Fractalkine, G-CSF, GM-CSF, GRO-α, I-309, IFN-α2a, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-2Rα, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17A/F, IL-17B, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17F, IL-18, IL-22, IL-23, IP-10, I-TAC, MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, MCP-4, M-CSF, MDC, MIF, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-3α, MIP-3β, MIP-5, SDF-1α, TARC, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, TNF-α, TNF-β, TPO, TRAIL, VEGF-A, YKL-40 | Non-human primate
MA6000 Human IL-6 384 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-6 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Mouse Cytokine 29-Plex Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17A/F, IL-17C, IL-17E/IL-25, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-27p28/IL-30, IL-31, IL-33, IP-10, KC/GRO, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-2, MIP-3α, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
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