Cluster Analysis of Placental Inflammatory Proteins Can Distinguish Preeclampsia from Preterm Labor and Premature Membrane Rupture in Singleton Deliveries Less Than 28 Weeks of Gestation.

Faupel-Badger, J.M., Fichorova, R.N., Allred, E.N., Hecht, J.L., Dammann, O., Leviton, A., McElrath, T.F.
Journal   Am J Reprod Immunol.
Species  
Analytes Measured   E-Selectin , ICAM-1 , IL-10 , IL-18 , IL-6 , IL-8 , P-Selectin , Thrombomodulin , VCAM-1 , Flt-1 VEGFR1
Matrix Tested   Placental lysates
Year   2011
Volume   66
Page Numbers   488-494
Application   Cytokines and Chemokines
Abstract
PROBLEM: Inflammation within the preterm placenta is common and leads to adverse outcomes for premature infants. The risks of complications are different between iatrogenic (e.g. PE) and spontaneous (e.g. PL and membrane rupture) causes of preterm delivery, suggesting different underlying biology contributes to these placental conditions.

METHOD OF STUDY: Thirty preterm singleton placentas from the following groups were analyzed: (i) severe PE, (ii) preterm premature membrane rupture (pPROM), and (iii) PL. Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, adhesion and angiogenic molecules were measured in placental lysates using a multiplex assay. K-means cluster analysis was used to generate patterns of protein level intensity.

RESULTS: Three cluster patterns were apparent. Placentas from PE had high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) combined with low levels of acute inflammatory proteins (IL-1Îβ, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α), low IL-1 RA, and high transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). PL and pPROM had higher anti-inflammatory IL-1 RA and thrombomodulin combined with lower VEGF, regardless of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. Half of the PL and pPROM cases had clusters of heightened inflammatory responses (lower TGF-β clustered with higher intensity of inflammatory mediators).

CONCLUSION: Discriminating protein patterns were elucidated and may serve as a foundation from which to understand the biologic mechanisms underlying these pregnancy complications.

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Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Human Biomarker 40-Plex Kit
CRP, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, FGF (basic), GM-CSF, ICAM-1, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PlGF, SAA, TARC, Tie-2, TNF-α, TNF-β, VCAM-1, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-1/Flt-1 | Human
Multiplex
Human Flt-1 Antibody
VEGFR-1/Flt-1
Human ICAM-1 Antibody
ICAM-1
Human VCAM-1 Antibody
VCAM-1
V-PLEX Neuroinflammation Panel 1 Human Kit
CRP, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, FGF (basic), ICAM-1, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PlGF, SAA, TARC, Tie-2, TNF-α, TNF-β, VCAM-1, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-1/Flt-1 | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Neuroinflammation Panel 1 Human Kit
CRP, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, FGF (basic), ICAM-1, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PlGF, SAA, TARC, Tie-2, TNF-α, TNF-β, VCAM-1, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-1/Flt-1 | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Chemokine Panel 1 NHP Kit
Eotaxin-3, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC | Non-human primate
Multiplex
V-PLEX NHP Cytokine 24-Plex Kit
Eotaxin-3, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Non-human primate
Multiplex
V-PLEX NHP IL-6 Kit
IL-6 | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX NHP IL-8 Kit
IL-8 | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX NHP IL-10 Kit
IL-10 | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Chemokine Panel 1 NHP Kit
Eotaxin-3, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC | Non-human primate
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus NHP Cytokine 24-Plex Kit
Eotaxin-3, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Non-human primate
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus NHP IL-6 Kit
IL-6 | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus NHP IL-8 Kit
IL-8 | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus NHP IL-10 Kit
IL-10 | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Proinflammatory Panel 1 NHP Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 | Non-human primate
Multiplex
V-PLEX Proinflammatory Panel 1 NHP Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 | Non-human primate
Multiplex
V-PLEX Human Flt-1 Kit
VEGFR-1/Flt-1 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Human ICAM-1 Kit
ICAM-1 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Human VCAM-1 Kit
VCAM-1 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Human Flt-1 Kit
VEGFR-1/Flt-1 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Human ICAM-1 Kit
ICAM-1 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Human VCAM-1 Kit
VCAM-1 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Vascular Injury Panel 2 Human Kit
CRP, ICAM-1, SAA, VCAM-1 | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Vascular Injury Panel 2 Human Kit
CRP, ICAM-1, SAA, VCAM-1 | Human
Multiplex
Vascular Injury Control Pack 1
CRP, ICAM-1, SAA, VCAM-1
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