Depressive symptoms are associated with elevated serum proinflammatory cytokines among pregnant women.

Christian, L.M., Franco, A., Glaser, R. Iams, J.D.
Journal   Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.
Species  
Analytes Measured   IL-6
Matrix Tested   Serum
Year   2009
Volume   23
Page Numbers   750-754
Application   Cytokines and Chemokines
Abstract
Psychosocial stress and depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk of negative perinatal outcomes including preterm delivery and gestational hypertension. Inflammation is a likely mechanism by which distress may promote these outcomes. It is well-established that stress and depressive symptoms are associated with elevated serum inflammatory markers in nonpregnant populations. However, the immune system exhibits significant changes during pregnancy. Thus, the extent to which these findings extend to pregnancy is largely unknown. The current study examined associations among perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and serum inflammatory markers in a sample of 60 pregnant women. Fifty seven percent were African-American, 82% had completed high school or less education, and 63% reported an annual family income below $15,000. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were determined using high sensitivity immunoassays. Regression analyses demonstrated that after controlling for pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI), higher scores on the CES-D were related to significantly higher levels of IL-6 (beta=.23, p=.05) and marginally higher TNF-alpha (beta=.24, p=.06). Perceived stress was not significantly related to serum levels of IL-6 or TNF-alpha. In sum, these results indicate that depressive symptoms are associated with higher levels of maternal serum inflammatory markers during pregnancy. These data are consistent with the contention that depressive symptoms may contribute to negative perinatal outcomes via inflammatory pathways.

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IL-6 | Mouse
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Human Cytokine 30-Plex Kit
Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC, TNF-α, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Human IL-6 Kit
IL-6 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Human Proinflam. Panel I (4-Plex)
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Human Proinflam. Panel II (4-Plex)
IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Mouse IL-6 Kit
IL-6 | Mouse
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Proinflammatory Panel 1 Human Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Proinflammatory Panel1 Mouse Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, KC/GRO, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Rat IL-6 Kit
IL-6 | Rat
Singleplex
V-PLEX Proinflammatory Panel 1 Human Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Proinflammatory Panel 1 Mouse Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, KC/GRO, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
V-PLEX Rat IL-6 Kit
IL-6 | Rat
Singleplex
Proinflammatory Panel 1 Human Control Pack
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α | Human
Proinflammatory Panel 1 Mouse Control Pack
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, KC/GRO, TNF-α | Mouse
Proinflammatory Panel 1 Rat Control Pack
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, KC/GRO, TNF-α | Rat
Human ProInflammatory-4 II Tissue Culture Kit
IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
Human IL-6 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-6 | Human
Singleplex
Human ProInflammatory 7-Plex Tissue Culture Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
Human ProInflammatory 9-Plex Tissue Culture Kit
GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
Human ProInflammatory-4 I Tissue Culture Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
Canine ProInflammatory Panel 3 Ultra-Sensitive Kit
IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α | Canine
Multiplex
MA6000 Rat IL-6 384 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-6 | Rat
Singleplex
Mouse ProInflammatory 7-Plex Tissue Culture Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, KC/GRO, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
MA6000 Mouse IL-6 384 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-6 | Mouse
Singleplex
MS6000 Human ProInflammatory-4 II 384 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-6, IL-8 | Human
Multiplex
Mouse IL-6 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-6 | Mouse
Singleplex
V-PLEX Mouse Cytokine 29-Plex Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17A/F, IL-17C, IL-17E/IL-25, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-27p28/IL-30, IL-31, IL-33, IP-10, KC/GRO, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-2, MIP-3α, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
U-PLEX Biomarker Group 1 NHP Assays
CTACK, ENA-78, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-2, Eotaxin-3, FLT3L, Fractalkine, G-CSF, GM-CSF, GRO-α, I-309, IFN-α2a, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-2Rα, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17A/F, IL-17B, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17F, IL-18, IL-22, IL-23, IP-10, I-TAC, MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, MCP-4, M-CSF, MDC, MIF, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-3α, MIP-3β, MIP-5, SDF-1α, TARC, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, TNF-α, TNF-β, TPO, TRAIL, VEGF-A, YKL-40 | Non-human primate
MA6000 Human IL-6 384 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-6 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Mouse Cytokine 29-Plex Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17A/F, IL-17C, IL-17E/IL-25, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-27p28/IL-30, IL-31, IL-33, IP-10, KC/GRO, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-2, MIP-3α, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
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