Time course of renal proximal tubule injury, reversal, and related biomarker changes in rats following cisplatin administration.

McDuffie JE, Ma JY, Sablad M, Sonee M, Varacallo L, Louden C, Guy A, Vegas J, Liu X, La D, Snook S.
Journal   Int J Toxicol.
Species  
Analytes Measured   Albumin , Clusterin , GSTYb1 , HAVCR1 KIM-1 , Osteopontin , RPA-1
Matrix Tested   Urine
Year   2013
Volume   32
Page Numbers   251-260
Application   Toxicology
Abstract
Cisplatin (CDDP) is known to produce renal proximal tubule injury. Various renal biomarkers have been related to CDDP nephrotoxicity in previous research, but the temporal and spatial relationship of these biomarkers to injury reversal has not been well defined. In this study, the progression and reversal of renal histopathology findings relative to serum and urinary biomarker changes were examined during a 4-week postdose period following single intraperitoneal administration of CDDP (1 mg/kg) or 0.9% saline. Degeneration, vacuolation, inflammation, and regeneration of the S3 segment of proximal tubules were evident 72 hours following CDDP administration. Tubular degeneration and regeneration were also observed at 1 and 1.5 weeks but at lower incidences and/or severity indicating partial reversal. Complete histologic reversal was observed by 2 weeks following CDDP administration. Urinary kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), α-glutathione-S-transferase (α-GST), and albumin levels increased at 72 hours postdosing, concurrently with the earliest histologic evidence of tubule injury. Changes in urinary KIM-1 correlated with KIM-1 immunostaining in the proximal tubular epithelial cells. No significant changes in serum biomarkers occurred except for a minimal increase in urea nitrogen at 1.5 weeks postdosing. Of the novel renal biomarkers examined, urinary KIM-1, α-GST, and albumin showed excellent concordance with CDDP-induced renal injury progression and reversal; and these biomarkers were more sensitive than traditional serum biomarkers in detecting early, acute renal tubular damage confirmed by histopathology. Furthermore, urinary KIM-1, α-GST, and albumin outperformed other biomarkers in correlating with the time of maximum histologic injury.

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