Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are associated with greater arterial stiffness over a 6-year period.

van Bussel, B.C., Schouten, F., Henry, R.M., Schalkwijk, C.G., de Boer, M.R., Ferreira, I., Smulders, Y.M., Twisk, J.W., Stehouwer, C.D.
Journal   Hypertension.
Species  
Analytes Measured   CRP , E-Selectin , ICAM-1 , IL-6 , IL-8 , SAA , Thrombomodulin , VCAM-1
Matrix Tested   Serum
Year   2011
Volume   58
Page Numbers   588-595
Application   Cytokines and Chemokines
Abstract
Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are associated with cardiovascular disease. Arterial stiffening plays an important role in cardiovascular disease and, thus, may be a mechanism through which endothelial dysfunction and/or low-grade inflammation lead to cardiovascular disease. We investigated the associations between, on the one hand, biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction (soluble endothelial selectin, thrombomodulin, and both vascular and intercellular adhesion molecules 1 and von Willebrand factor) and of low-grade inflammation (C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor-α and, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1) and, on the other hand, arterial stiffness over a 6-year period, in 293 healthy adults (155 women). Biomarkers were combined into mean z scores. Carotid, femoral, and brachial arterial stiffness and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity were determined by ultrasonography. Measurements were obtained when individuals were 36 and 42 years of age. Associations were analyzed with generalized estimating equation and adjusted for sex, height, and mean arterial pressure. The endothelial dysfunction z score was inversely associated with femoral distensibility (β: -0.51 [95% CI: -0.95 to -0.06]) and compliance coefficients (β: -0.041 [95% CI: -0.076 to -0.006]) but not with carotid or brachial stiffness or carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. The low-grade inflammation z score was inversely associated with femoral distensibility (β: -0.51 [95% CI: -0.95 to -0.07]) and compliance coefficients (β: -0.050 [95% CI: -0.084 to -0.016]) and with carotid distensibility coefficient (β: -0.910 [95% CI: -1.810 to -0.008]) but not with brachial stiffness or carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are associated with greater arterial stiffness. This provides evidence that arterial stiffening may be a mechanism through which endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation lead to cardiovascular disease.

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Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Neuroinflammation Panel 1 Human Kit
CRP, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, FGF (basic), ICAM-1, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PlGF, SAA, TARC, Tie-2, TNF-α, TNF-β, VCAM-1, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-1/Flt-1 | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Chemokine Panel 1 NHP Kit
Eotaxin-3, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC | Non-human primate
Multiplex
V-PLEX NHP Cytokine 24-Plex Kit
Eotaxin-3, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Non-human primate
Multiplex
V-PLEX NHP IL-6 Kit
IL-6 | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX NHP IL-8 Kit
IL-8 | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Chemokine Panel 1 NHP Kit
Eotaxin-3, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC | Non-human primate
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus NHP Cytokine 24-Plex Kit
Eotaxin-3, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Non-human primate
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus NHP IL-6 Kit
IL-6 | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus NHP IL-8 Kit
IL-8 | Non-human primate
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Proinflammatory Panel 1 NHP Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 | Non-human primate
Multiplex
V-PLEX Proinflammatory Panel 1 NHP Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 | Non-human primate
Multiplex
V-PLEX Human CRP Kit
CRP | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Human ICAM-1 Kit
ICAM-1 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Human SAA Kit
SAA | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Human VCAM-1 Kit
VCAM-1 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Human CRP Kit
CRP | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Human ICAM-1 Kit
ICAM-1 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Human SAA Kit
SAA | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Human VCAM-1 Kit
VCAM-1 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Vascular Injury Panel 2 Human Kit
CRP, ICAM-1, SAA, VCAM-1 | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Vascular Injury Panel 2 Human Kit
CRP, ICAM-1, SAA, VCAM-1 | Human
Multiplex
Vascular Injury Control Pack 1
CRP, ICAM-1, SAA, VCAM-1
Human IL-6 Antibody Bulk Product
IL-6
Human IL-8 Antibody Bulk Product
IL-8
Mouse IL-6 Antibody
IL-6
Rat IL-6 Antibody
IL-6
V-PLEX Chemokine Panel 1 Human Kit
Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Human Cytokine 30-Plex Kit
Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC, TNF-α, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Human IL-6 Kit
IL-6 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Human IL-8 Kit
IL-8 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Human Proinflammatory Panel I (4-Plex)
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Human Proinflammatory Panel II (4-Plex)
IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Mouse IL-6 Kit
IL-6 | Mouse
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Chemokine Panel 1 Human Kit
Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Human Cytokine 30-Plex Kit
Eotaxin, Eotaxin-3, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-8 (HA), IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TARC, TNF-α, TNF-β, VEGF-A | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Plus Human IL-6 Kit
IL-6 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Human IL-8 Kit
IL-8 | Human
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus Human Proinflam. Panel I (4-Plex)
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
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