Immunomodulatory drugs reorganize cytoskeleton by modulating Rho GTPases.

Xu, Y., Li, J., Ferguson, G.D., Mercurio, F., Khambatta, G., Morrison, L. Lopez-Girona, A., Corral, L.G., Webb, D.R., Bennett, B.L., Xie, W.
Journal   Blood
Species  
Analytes Measured   IL-2
Matrix Tested   Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture supernatants
Year   2009
Volume   114
Page Numbers   338-345
Application   Cytokines and Chemokines
Abstract
IMiDs immunomodulatory drugs, including lenalidomide and pomalidomide represent a novel class of small molecule anticancer and anti-inflammatory drugs with broad biologic activities. However, the molecular mechanism through which these drugs exert their effects is largely undefined. Using pomalidomide and primary human monocytes, we report that pomalidomide rapidly and selectively activated RhoA and Rac1, but not Cdc42 or Ras, in the absence of any costimulation. Consistent with the activation of Rho GTPases, we found that pomalidomide enhanced F-actin formation, stabilized microtubules, and increased cell migration, all of which were blocked by selective inhibitors of ROCK1 and Rac1. Further, we showed that in Swiss 3T3 cells, pomalidomide only activated RhoA, not Rac1 or Cdc42, and potently induced stress fiber formation. The pomalidomide effect on actin cytoskeleton was blocked by the ROCK1 inhibitor, but not Rac1 inhibitor. Finally, we demonstrated that pomalidomide was able to regulate the activity of Rho GTPases and the formation of F-actin in primary human T cells as it did in monocytes and showed that the activation of RhoA was essential for pomalidomide-induced interleukin-2 expression in T cells. These novel activities provide what we believe a critical mechanism by which IMiDs drugs function as therapeutic immunomodulatory agents.

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IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
V-PLEX Proinflammatory Panel 1 Mouse Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, KC/GRO, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
Proinflammatory Panel 1 Human Control Pack
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α | Human
Proinflammatory Panel 1 Mouse Control Pack
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, KC/GRO, TNF-α | Mouse
Proinflammatory Panel 1 Rat Control Pack
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, KC/GRO, TNF-α | Rat
Human ProInflammatory 9-Plex Tissue Culture Kit
GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
Human TH1/TH2 10-Plex Tissue Culture Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α | Human
Multiplex
Human TH1/TH2 7-Plex Tissue Culture Kit
IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13 | Human
Multiplex
Canine ProInflammatory Panel 3 Ultra-Sensitive Kit
IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α | Canine
Multiplex
Mouse TH1/TH2 9-Plex Tissue Culture Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12 (total), KC/GRO, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
MA6000 Human IL-2 384 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-2 | Human
Singleplex
MA6000 Mouse IL-2 384 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-2 | Mouse
Singleplex
Human IL-2 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-2 | Human
Singleplex
Mouse IL-2 Tissue Culture Kit
IL-2 | Mouse
Singleplex
V-PLEX Mouse Cytokine 29-Plex Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17A/F, IL-17C, IL-17E/IL-25, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-27p28/IL-30, IL-31, IL-33, IP-10, KC/GRO, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-2, MIP-3α, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
U-PLEX Biomarker Group 1 NHP Assays
CTACK, ENA-78, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-2, Eotaxin-3, FLT3L, Fractalkine, G-CSF, GM-CSF, GRO-α, I-309, IFN-α2a, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-2Rα, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17A/F, IL-17B, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17F, IL-18, IL-22, IL-23, IP-10, I-TAC, MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, MCP-4, M-CSF, MDC, MIF, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-3α, MIP-3β, MIP-5, SDF-1α, TARC, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, TNF-α, TNF-β, TPO, TRAIL, VEGF-A, YKL-40 | Non-human primate
V-PLEX Plus Mouse Cytokine 29-Plex Kit
IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17A/F, IL-17C, IL-17E/IL-25, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-27p28/IL-30, IL-31, IL-33, IP-10, KC/GRO, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-2, MIP-3α, TNF-α | Mouse
Multiplex
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