Duodenal-jejunal bypass protects GK rats from {beta}-cell loss and aggravation of hyperglycemia and increases enteroendocrine cells coexpressing GIP and GLP-1.

Speck, M., Cho, Y.M., Asadi, A., Rubino, F., Kieffer, T.J.
Journal   Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.
Species  
Analytes Measured   GLP-1 , Insulin
Matrix Tested   Plasma
Year   2011
Volume   300
Page Numbers  
Application   Metabolic
Abstract
Dramatic improvement of type 2 diabetes is commonly observed after bariatric surgery. However, the mechanisms behind the alterations in glucose homeostasis are still elusive. We examined the effect of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB), which maintains the gastric volume intact while bypassing the entire duodenum and the proximal jejunum, on glycemic control, β-cell mass, islet morphology, and changes in enteroendocrine cell populations in nonobese diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and nondiabetic control Wistar rats. We performed DJB or sham surgery in GK and Wistar rats. Blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance were monitored, and the plasma insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) levels were measured. β-Cell area, islet fibrosis, intestinal morphology, and the density of enteroendocrine cells expressing GLP-1 and/or GIP were quantified. Improved postprandial glycemia was observed from 3 mo after DJB in diabetic GK rats, persisting until 12 mo after surgery. Compared with the sham-GK rats, the DJB-GK rats had an increased β-cell area and a decreased islet fibrosis, increased insulin secretion with increased GLP-1 secretion in response to a mixed meal, and an increased population of cells coexpressing GIP and GLP-1 in the jejunum anastomosed to the stomach. In contrast, DJB impaired glucose tolerance in nondiabetic Wistar rats. In conclusion, although DJB worsens glucose homeostasis in normal nondiabetic Wistar rats, it can prevent long-term aggravation of glucose homeostasis in diabetic GK rats in association with changes in intestinal enteroendocrine cell populations, increased GLP-1 production, and reduced β-cell deterioration.

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