Butyrate and propionate protect against diet-induced obesity and regulate gut hormones via free fatty acid receptor 3-independent mechanisms.

Lin HV, Frassetto A, Kowalik EJ Jr, Nawrocki AR, Lu MM, Kosinski JR, Hubert JA, Szeto D, Yao X, Forrest G, Marsh DJ.
Journal   PLoS One.
Species  
Analytes Measured   GLP-1
Matrix Tested   Plasma
Year   2012
Volume   7
Page Numbers   e35240
Application   Metabolic
Abstract
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), primarily acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are metabolites formed by gut microbiota from complex dietary carbohydrates. Butyrate and acetate were reported to protect against diet-induced obesity without causing hypophagia, while propionate was shown to reduce food intake. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects are unclear. It was suggested that SCFAs may regulate gut hormones via their endogenous receptors Free fatty acid receptors 2 (FFAR2) and 3 (FFAR3), but direct evidence is lacking. We examined the effects of SCFA administration in mice, and show that butyrate, propionate, and acetate all protected against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Butyrate and propionate, but not acetate, induce gut hormones and reduce food intake. As FFAR3 is the common receptor activated by butyrate and propionate, we examined these effects in FFAR3-deficient mice. The effects of butyrate and propionate on body weight and food intake are independent of FFAR3. In addition, FFAR3 plays a minor role in butyrate stimulation of Glucagon-like peptide-1, and is not required for butyrate- and propionate-dependent induction of Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide. Finally, FFAR3-deficient mice show normal body weight and glucose homeostasis. Stimulation of gut hormones and food intake inhibition by butyrate and propionate may represent a novel mechanism by which gut microbiota regulates host metabolism. These effects are largely intact in FFAR3-deficient mice, indicating additional mediators are required for these beneficial effects.

View Publications

Related Products

U-PLEX Custom Metabolic Group 1 (hu) Assays
BAFF, BDNF, β-NGF, C-Peptide, CTACK, ENA-78, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-2, Eotaxin-3, EPO, FGF-21, FGF-23, FLT3L, Fractalkine, FSH, G-CSF, Ghrelin (active), Ghrelin (total), GIP (active), GIP (inactive), GIP (total), GLP-1 (active), GLP-1 (inactive), GLP-1 (total), Glucagon, GM-CSF, GRO-α, I-309, IFN-α2a, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-2Rα, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17A/F, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17E/IL-25, IL-17F, IL-18, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-27, IL-29/IFN-λ1, IL-31, IL-33, Insulin, IP-10, Leptin, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-4, M-CSF, MDC, MIF, MIP-1α, MIP-5, PP, Proinsulin, PYY (total), SDF-1α, TARC, TNF-α, TNF-β, TPO, TRAIL, TSLP, VEGF-A, YKL-40 | Human
Multiplex
U-PLEX Metabolic Group 1 (hu) Assays
BAFF, BDNF, β-NGF, C-Peptide, CTACK, ENA-78, Eotaxin, Eotaxin-2, Eotaxin-3, EPO, FGF-21, FGF-23, FLT3L, Fractalkine, FSH, G-CSF, Ghrelin (active), Ghrelin (total), GIP (active), GIP (inactive), GIP (total), GLP-1 (active), GLP-1 (inactive), GLP-1 (total), Glucagon, GM-CSF, GRO-α, I-309, IFN-α2a, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-2Rα, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17A/F, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17E/IL-25, IL-17F, IL-18, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-27, IL-29/IFN-λ1, IL-31, IL-33, Insulin, IP-10, Leptin, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-4, M-CSF, MDC, MIF, MIP-1α, MIP-5, PP, Proinsulin, PYY (total), SDF-1α, TARC, TNF-α, TNF-β, TPO, TRAIL, TSLP, VEGF-A, YKL-40 | Human
U-PLEX Diabetes Combo 1 (hu)
C-Peptide, GIP (total), GLP-1 (total), Glucagon, Insulin, Leptin, PYY (total) | Human
Multiplex
U-PLEX Human GLP-1 (total) Assay
GLP-1 (total) | Human
Singleplex
U-PLEX Metabolic Combo 1 (hu)
BAFF, BDNF, β-NGF, C-Peptide, FGF-21, FGF-23, FSH, Ghrelin (active), Ghrelin (total), GIP (active), GIP (inactive), GIP (total), GLP-1 (active), GLP-1 (inactive), GLP-1 (total), Glucagon, Insulin, Leptin, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), PP, Proinsulin, PYY (total) | Human
Multiplex
U-PLEX Obesity Combo 2 (hu)
C-Peptide, FGF-23, Ghrelin (total), GLP-1 (total), Insulin, Leptin, PYY (total) | Human
Multiplex
U-PLEX Human GLP-1 (total) Antibody Set
GLP-1 (total) | Human
GLP-1 (total) Antibody
GLP-1 (total) | Human
V-PLEX GLP-1 Total Kit
GLP-1 (total) | Human, Mouse, Non-human primate, Rat, Canine
Singleplex
V-PLEX Plus GLP-1 Total Kit
GLP-1 (total) | Human, Mouse, Non-human primate, Rat, Canine
Singleplex
GLP-1 (total) Control Pack
GLP-1 (total) | Human, Mouse, Non-human primate, Rat, Canine
R-PLEX Human GLP-1 Total Antibody Set
GLP-1 (total) | Human
Singleplex
Total GLP-1 Antibody
GLP-1 (total)
Total GLP-1 (ver. 2) Kit
GLP-1 (total) | Canine, Human, Non-human primate, Mouse, Rat
Singleplex
Human Active GLP-1(7-36)amide, Insulin, Glucagon, Leptin Kit
GLP-1 (active), Glucagon, Insulin, Leptin | Human
Multiplex
Human Active GLP-1, Insulin, Glucagon, Leptin Kit
GLP-1 (active), Glucagon, Insulin, Leptin | Human
Multiplex
Human GLP-1(7-36)amide, Glucagon, Insulin Kit
GLP-1 (active), Glucagon, Insulin | Human
Multiplex
Mouse/Rat GLP-1 (7-36)amide, Glucagon, Insulin Kit
GLP-1 (total), Glucagon, Insulin | Mouse, Rat
Multiplex
Mouse/Rat Active GLP-1 (7-36)amide, Insulin, Glucagon Kit
GLP-1 (total), Glucagon, Insulin | Mouse, Rat
Multiplex
Mouse/Rat Total Active GLP-1, Insulin, Glucagon Kit
GLP-1 (total), Glucagon, Insulin | Mouse, Rat
Multiplex
Browse Our Products

By Analytes
By Applications
Search
Customer Service/Orders


Scientific/Technical Support


Instrument Support


Company Headquarters