Attenuated Abeta42 responses to low potency gamma-secretase modulators can be overcome for many pathogenic presenilin mutants by second-generation compounds.

Kretner, B., Fukumori, A., Gutsmiedl, A., Page, R.M., Luebbers, T., Galley, G., Baumann, K., Haass, C., Steiner, H.
Journal   J Biol Chem.
Species  
Analytes Measured   Abeta 38 , Abeta 40 , Abeta 42
Matrix Tested   Cell culture supernatants
Year   2011
Volume   286
Page Numbers   15240-51
Application   Alzheimers
Abstract
Sequential processing of the β-amyloid precursor protein by β- and γ-secretase generates the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), which is widely believed to play a causative role in Alzheimer disease. Selective lowering of the pathogenic 42-amino acid variant of Aβ by γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) is a promising therapeutic strategy. Here we report that mutations in presenilin (PS), the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase, display differential responses to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-type GSMs and more potent second-generation compounds. Although many pathogenic PS mutations resisted lowering of Aβ(42) generation by the NSAID sulindac sulfide, the potent NSAID-like second-generation compound GSM-1 was capable of lowering Aβ(42) for many but not all mutants. We further found that mutations at homologous positions in PS1 and PS2 can elicit differential Aβ(42) responses to GSM-1, suggesting that a positive GSM-1 response depends on the spatial environment in γ-secretase. The aggressive pathogenic PS1 L166P mutation was one of the few pathogenic mutations that resisted GSM-1, and Leu-166 was identified as a critical residue with respect to the Aβ(42)-lowering response of GSM-1. Finally, we found that GSM-1-responsive and -resistant PS mutants behave very similarly toward other potent second-generation compounds of different structural classes than GSM-1. Taken together, our data show that a positive Aβ(42) response for PS mutants depends both on the particular mutation and the GSM used and that attenuated Aβ(42) responses to low potency GSMs can be overcome for many PS mutants by second generation GSMs.

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