The impact of Fc engineering on an anti-CD19 antibody: increased Fcgamma receptor affinity enhances B-cell clearing in nonhuman primates.

Zalevsky, J., Leung, I.W., Karki, S., Chu, S.Y., Zhukovsky, E.A., Desjarlais, J.R., Carmichael, D.F., Lawrence, C.E.
Journal   Blood
Analytes Measured  
Matrix Tested   Cynomolgus monkey serum
Year   2009
Volume   113
Page Numbers   3735
Application   Immunogenicity
CD19, a B cell-restricted receptor critical for B-cell development, is expressed in most B-cell malignancies. The Fc-engineered anti-CD19 antibody, XmAb5574, has enhanced Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaR) binding affinity, leading to improved FcgammaR-dependent effector cell functions and antitumor activity in murine xenografts compared with the non-Fc-engineered anti-CD19 IgG1 analog. Here, we use XmAb5574 and anti-CD19 IgG1 to further dissect effector cell functions in an immune system closely homologous to that of humans, the cynomolgus monkey. XmAb5574 infusion caused an immediate and dose-related B-cell depletion in the blood (to <10% of baseline levels) concomitant with a sustained reduction of natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells had fully recovered by day 15, whereas B-cell recovery was underway by day 57. B cells in secondary lymphoid tissues were depleted (to 34%-61% of vehicle), with involuted germinal centers apparent in the spleen. Anti-CD19 IgG1 had comparable serum exposure to XmAb5574 but demonstrated no B-cell depletion and no sustained NK-cell reduction. Thus, increasing FcgammaR binding affinity dramatically increased B-cell clearing. We propose that effector cell functions, possibly those involving NK cells, mediate XmAb5574 potency in cynomolgus monkeys, and that enhancing these mechanisms should advance the treatment of B-cell malignancies in humans.

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