Identification of novel N-terminal fragments of amyloid precursor protein in cerebrospinal fluid.

Portelius, E., Brinkmalm, G., Tran, A., Andreasson, U., Zetterberg, H., Westman-Brinkmalm, A., Blennow, K., Ohrfelt, A.
Journal   Experimental Neurology
Analytes Measured  
Matrix Tested   Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Year   2009
Page Numbers  
Application   Alzheimers
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Two pathological hallmarks in the brain of AD patients are neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. The plaques consist mainly of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides that are produced from the amyloid precursor protein (APP), by sequential cleavage by beta- and gamma-secretase. Most previous studies have been focused on the C-terminal fragments of APP, where the Abeta sequence is localized. The purpose of this study was to search for N-terminal fragments of APP in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using mass spectrometry (MS). By using immunoprecipitation (IP) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS as well as nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution tandem MS we were able to detect and identify six novel N-terminal APP fragments [APP((18-119)), APP((18-121)), APP((18-122)), APP((18-123)), APP((18-124)) and APP((18-126))], having molecular masses of approximately 12 kDa. The presence of these APP derivatives in CSF was also verified by Western blot analysis. Two pilot studies using either IP-MS or Western blot analysis indicated slightly elevated levels of N-terminal APP fragments in CSF from AD patients compared with controls, which are in need of replications in independent and larger patient materials.

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