Tumor Necrosis Factor-α is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in the acute phase inflammatory response. TNF-α has many biological functions. TNF-α often works in conjunction with IL-6 and IL-1 on various organ systems and its action is mediated through two receptors, TNF-RI and TNF-RII. TNF-RI and TNF-RII have little sequence homology and are different in their ligand binding kinetics and signaling properties. TNF-RI is constitutively expressed in most tissue and can be fully activated by both the membrane bound and soluble forms of TNF-α. TNF-RII is activated only by the membrane bound form of TNF-α and is found only in cells of the immune system. TNF-RI and TNF-RII receptors also form trimers when they come in contact with their ligand. The TNFR receptors then undergo a conformational change that leads to dissociation of the inhibitory protein SODD (Silencer of Death Domains) from their intracellular death domain. This dissociation consequently allows the adapter protein TRADD (TNF receptor-associated death domain) to bind to the death domain, which serves as a scaffold for subsequent protein binding. Three pathways can be activated upon binding of TRADD; the anti-apoptotic NF-κB pathway, cellular differentiation and proliferation mediated through the MAPK pathway primarily through the stress activated JNK group and apoptosis or cell death signaling through caspase-8.


TNF-RI Singleplex Products

Our TNF-RI immunoassays provide fast, accurate, reproducible, and highly sensitive measurements of TNF-RI. MSD’s MULTI-ARRAY technology uses simple protocols, requires minimal sample, and quantifies analyte concentration over a wide dynamic range.


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