IGF (Insulin like Growth Factor) signaling is mediated by the ligands IGF1 and IGF2, and the receptors IGF-1R (Insulin like Growth Factor-1 Receptor), IGF-2R, and IR (Insulin Receptor). Additionally, downstream signaling from IGF-1R/IR through the PI3K signaling pathway is accomplished due to the adaptor protein IRS-1 (Insulin Receptor Substrate-1) binding to the phosphorylated and activated IGF-1R or IR. IGF-1R and IR belong to the family of tyrosine kinase receptors and are comprised of 2 alpha and 2 beta subunits which are connected via disulfide bonds. The alpha subunits are extracellular and the beta subunits are membrane spanning, intracellular, and responsible for the downstream signaling mediated by binding of the ligands: IGF-1, IGF-2, and insulin. IGF-1R and IR are also capable of forming hybrid receptors with one subunit from IGF-1R and 1 subunit from IR, and the main biological distinction between IGF-1R, IR, and the heteroreceptors are their ligand affinities and slightly modified signaling properties. Upon ligand binding, these receptors autophosphorylate on multiple tyrosine residues within the beta subunits. This autophosphorylation results in the binding of multiple docking and adaptor proteins (such as Shc and IRS-1/2) involved in signaling through the Ras/MAP kinase and AKT/PI3 kinase signaling cascades. IR and IGF-1R signaling play a key role in normal development, growth, metabolism, and cellular homeostasis as well as being implicated in such disease processes as growth abnormalities, metabolic processes, and different types of cancer.


IR Multiplex Products

Our multiplex panels let you process up to 10 analytes simultaneously in each well of a MULTI-SPOT microplate. They provide the same outstanding performance as our singleplex immmunoassays while saving money, sample, and time.


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The following related assays are not in our catalog but may be available as custom orders. Custom orders are typically shipped in 3 to 6 weeks. You may request pricing and availability for the assays below using our Custom Assay Quote Request form.

  • IR - Human
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