Multimodal microvascular imaging reveals that selective inhibition of class I PI3K is sufficient to induce an antivascular response.

Sampath D, Oeh J, Wyatt SK, Cao TC, Koeppen H, Eastham-Anderson J, Robillard L, Ho CC, Ross J, Zhuang G, Reslan HB, Vitorino P, Barck KH, Ungersma SE, Vernes JM, Caunt M, Van Bruggen N, Ye W, Vijapurkar U, Meng YJ, Ferrara N, Friedman LS, Carano RA.
Journal   Neoplasia
Species  
Analytes Measured   Akt , S6RP
Matrix Tested   Tumor xenograft lysates
Year   2013
Volume   15
Page Numbers   694-711
Application   Phosphoproteins
Abstract
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is a central mediator of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-driven angiogenesis. The discovery of small molecule inhibitors that selectively target PI3K or PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) provides an opportunity to pharmacologically determine the contribution of these key signaling nodes in VEGF-A-driven tumor angiogenesis in vivo. This study used an array of micro-vascular imaging techniques to monitor the antivascular effects of selective class I PI3K, mTOR, or dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors in colorectal and prostate cancer xenograft models. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) angiography, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), vessel size index (VSI) MRI, and DCE ultrasound (DCE-U/S) were employed to quantitatively evaluate the vascular (structural and physiological) response to these inhibitors. GDC-0980, a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, was found to reduce micro-CT angiography vascular density, while VSI MRI demonstrated a significant reduction in vessel density and an increase in mean vessel size, consistent with a loss of small functional vessels and a substantial antivascular response. DCE-MRI showed that GDC-0980 produces a strong functional response by decreasing the vascular permeability/perfusion-related parameter, K (trans). Interestingly, comparable antivascular effects were observed for both GDC-980 and GNE-490 (a selective class I PI3K inhibitor). In addition, mTOR-selective inhibitors did not affect vascular density, suggesting that PI3K inhibition is sufficient to generate structural changes, characteristic of a robust antivascular response. This study supports the use of noninvasive microvascular imaging techniques (DCE-MRI, VSI MRI, DCE-U/S) as pharmacodynamic assays to quantitatively measure the activity of PI3K and dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors in vivo.

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